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WI on Globalisation
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material flows
land use

land use & livelihoods

>>> "Sustainable Land Use"
>>> Land Requirements of European Foreign Trade with Agricultural Goods
>>> Sustainable Land Use in Countries of the South

Introductory Literature

World Resources Institute:
World Resources 2000-2001: People and Ecosystems.
Washington: WRI, 2000.
Report on the state and development of the world's eco-systems, emphasizing their functions for peoples directly dependent on nature.

Gadgil, Madhav/Guha, Ramachandra:
Ecology and Equity. The Use and Abuse of Nature in Contemporary India.
London: Routledge, 1995.
Profound analysis of ecological inequality in India. Connecting social history, politics and ecology, the text deals with how the middle class ("omnivores") uses resource conflicts in order to maintain and protect their privileges against small farmers and the landless ("ecosystem people").

Madeley, John:
Hungry for Trade. How the Poor Pay for Free Trade.
London: Zed, 2000.
This book polemically analyses the effects of the liberalisation of global agricultural markets on the rural population's nutrition and income in the South. Madeley makes use of empirical evidence concerning liberalisation's influence on food security.

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"Sustainable Land Use"

Illich, Ivan:
Medical Nemesis: The Expropriation of Health.
4. ed. München: Beck, 1995.

Kimbrell, Andrew (ed.):
The Fatal Harvest Reader. The tragedy of industrial agriculture.
Washington: The Island Press, 2002.
A detailed publication on the effects of industrial agriculture.

Pretty, J., Hine, R.:
Reducing Food Poverty with Sustainable Agriculture: A Summary of New Evidence.
Final Report from the "SAFE-World" (The Potential of Sustainable Agriculture to Feed the World) Research Project, Centre for Environment and Society
University of Essex, England: 2001.
The article provides a good insight into the field of adjusted agriculture. It summarizes the results of their study which evaluates diverse agriculural projects in 52 countries that are trying to handle food scarcity in the South by working in ways as close as possible to nature. According to the authors, this requires a paradigmatic shift: The central ideas of industrial production must be abandoned in order to be able to use natural networks and cycles. It will then become obvious that even under worst conditions local, natural and social recources ressources are usable in sustainable and productive ways.

Sassen, Saskia:
Globalization and Its Discontents.
New York: New Press, 1988.
Sassen, Saskia:
Machtbeben. Wohin führt die Globalisierung?
Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 2000.
Sassen's publications deal with migration and social polarisation, focussing on competition, class and gender relations. She points out that globalisation enforces rural migration towards urban centres and increases the competition between immigrated workers on low wage jobs.

Kelly, Marjorie:
The Divine Right of Capital.
San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2001.
Kelly analyses the relation between the expansion of capital and its social effects. She focusses on corporate responsibility and develops an analysis of how the distribution of property and spheres of influence concentrate power in the hands of only a few rich.

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"Land requirements of the European Foreign Trade with Agricultural Goods"

>>> Trade- and Agricultural statistics
>>> Global Food Production
>>> Land Use and Agricultural goods
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Andersson, Jan O.; Lindroth, Mattias:
Ecologically Unsustainable Trade.
In: Ecological Economics 37 (2001), S. 113-122.
This paper shows the application of the ecological footprint concept to distinguish different types of ecologically unsustainable exchange through international trade.

Döppe, Tobias; Giljum, Stefan; Hammer, Mark; Hinterberger, Friedrich; Luks, Fred; Schnepf, Doris; Spangenberg, Joachim:
Free Trade, Sustainable Trade - a Contradiction?
Background Paper for the Debate on Trade and Sustainable Development after Johannesburg.

A Study of the Sustainable Europe Research Institute for Heinrich Boell Foundation (ed.) 2002.
This background paper reveals contradictions between the two concepts "free trade" and "sustainable trade", and provides suggestions how to reform the current system of "free trade" towards a sustainable development.

Giljum, Stefan:
Trade, Material Flows and Economic Development in the South: the Example of Chile.
Paper submitted to the Journal of Industrial Ecology. 2002.
The paper analyzes the restructuring of the Chilean economy towards an active integration in the world market from the perspective of natural resource use.

Muradian, Roldan; Martinez-Alier, Joan:
Globalization and Poverty - an Ecological Perspective.
World Summit Paper of the Heinrich Boell Foundation (ed.), No. 7, 2001.
This paper discusses the possible environmental and development effects of globalisation in developing countries that specialise in the extraction of natural resources, and it shows alternatives for a more sustainable development.

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Trade- and Agricultural Statistics

EUROSTAT Außenhandelstatistik COMEXT
Both CD-ROM's are an indispensable base of data for calculating foreign trade of the EU with agricultural products and its requirements of land.

Global Food Production

Erik Millstone/Tim Lang:
The Atlas of Food. Who eats what, where and why.
London: Earthscan, 2003.
Because of the very good graphic presentations it is a very recommendable book concerning the topics Agriculture, Food and Consuming Patterns and their ecological consequences. Furthermore, in order of the different topics, the book gives a lot of links in the appendix, which makes the deepening of a specific issue possible.

The State of Food and Agriculture 2002.
Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2002.
The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2002.
Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2002.
World Agriculture: Towards 2015/2030. Summary Report.
Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2002.
The first two FAO publications give an extensive overview of the recent worldwide data concerning food. The third publication on the other hand shows a slightly positive outlook to the assumed supply and demand situation of worldwide agriculture in the future.

Land Use and Agricultural Goods

Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Nonhebel, S.:
Consumption Patterns and Their Effects on Land Required for Food.
In: Ecological Economics 42 (2002), S. 185-199.
This is a very interesting article which deals with the effect of different diets on the necessary land. The authors come to the conclusion that changing the consumption patterns will have a greater influence on land use than the expected increase in population.

Giljum, Stefan; Hubacek, Klaus:
International Trade, Material Flows and Land Use: Developing a Physical Trade Balance for the European Union. Interim Report.
Luxemburg: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IISAS), 2001.
Hubacek, Klaus; Giljum, Stefan:
Applying Physical Input-Output Analysis to Estimate land Appropriation (Ecological Footprints) of International Trade Activities.
Both articles try to find out about land requirements of foreign trade activities with a more extensive method than our. With the help of a physical input-output-table the direct and indirect land appropriation of the entire exports of the EU15 is estimated.

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Sustainable Agriculture in Countries of the South

Tivy, Joy:
Agricultural Ecology.
Longman Scientific & Technical, 1990.
Offers an easy start into the topic and its basic problems within the field of agriculture and ecology.

Schmidt, Götz; Jasper, Ulrich:
Agrarwende oder die Zukunft unserer Ernährung.
München: Beck, 2001.
In Germany, food-scandals demanded a fundamental change in agriculture in the last few years. The authors describe the immense problems resulting from an industralized agriculture and its effects on our diet deaply dependent on it. They refer to economic and political alternatives, which could initiate a fundamental change if consequently installed. A state-of-the-art of a failed agricultural policy, which helps the reader to realize its context and possible solutions.

Yussefi, Minou; Willer, Helga:
Agriculture Worldwide 2002 - Statistics and Future Prospects.
This bi-lingual (German - English) voluminous broschure includes many aspects of organic agriculture worldwide. The reader will find broad information and numerous statistics about the state-of-the art and development of organic agriculture, as well as about the market situation for organic products, certification systems and consumer protection.